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From 1919 Kiev was an important center of the Armed Forces of South Russia and was controlled by the White Army.
Kiev's armament-dependent industrial output fell after the Soviet collapse, adversely affecting science and technology.The spelling is used by the United Nations, all English-speaking foreign diplomatic missions, Kiev, one of the oldest cities of Eastern Europe, played a pivotal role in the development of the medieval East Slavic civilization as well as in the modern Ukrainian nation.Scholars debate as to period of the foundation of the city: some date the founding to the late 9th century, Notable archaeologists of the area around Kiev include Vikentiy Khvoyka.Legendary accounts tell of the origin of the city; one legend features a founding-family, members of a Slavic tribe (Polans): the leader Kyi, the eldest, his brothers Shchek and Khoryv, and also their sister Lybid, who allegedly founded the city (See the Primary Chronicle).There is little historical evidence pertaining to the period when the city was founded.Early English sources use various names, including Kiou, Kiow, Kiew, Kiovia.
On one of the oldest English maps of the region, Russiae, Moscoviae et Tartariae published by Ortelius (London, 1570) the name of the city is spelled Kiou.
Scattered Slavic settlements existed in the area from the 6th century, but it is unclear whether any of them later developed into the city.8th-century fortifications were built upon a Slavic settlement apparently abandoned some decades before.
It is still unclear whether these fortifications were built by the Slavs or by the Khazars.
If it was the Slavic peoples then it is also uncertain when Kiev fell under the rule of the Khazar empire or whether the city was, in fact, founded by the Khazars.
The Primary Chronicle (a main source of information about the early history of the area) mentions Slavic Kievans telling Askold and Dir that they lived without a local ruler and paid a tribute to the Khazars in an entry attributed to the 9th century.
A Slavic settlement on the great trade route between Scandinavia and Constantinople, Kiev was a tributary of the Khazars, until seized by the Varangians (Vikings) in the mid-9th century.