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The CDC recently delineated the significance of social determinants of health, stating that “while effective interventions that address individual risk factors and behaviors exist, to ensure good health in all communities requires a broader portfolio that looks at social and environmental factors as well” (CDC, 2010, p. Despite clear evidence for the social determinants of HIV transmission and the beneficial effects of structural interventions (Adimora & Auerbach, 2010), there have been limited efforts targeting these social inequalities, which place gay and bisexual men at greater risk for the acquisition of HIV disease.

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(2009) demonstrated that gay and bisexual men with histories of childhood sexual abuse were more likely to report both unprotected anal intercourse, to derive fewer benefits from participation in prevention programs, and to be at an overall greater risk for HIV infection. An 18-year-old Latino who was HIV-negative expressed how he experienced homophobia from his own sister: I came here [NYC], I never had worked. In their qualitative study of masculinity, Phoenix, Frosh, and Pattman (2003) found that boys as young as 11 years of age have found it critically important to present themselves as masculine in order to avoid being bullied and labeled as gay. I went to high school one year here just to get the high school diploma and went to Hofstra University. In fact, when it comes to traditional gender expression, boys tend to be watched very closely because of the high value assigned to hegemonic masculinity, which is the most honored way of being a man in our culture (Connell & Messerschmidt, 2005; Pascoe, 2007). These researchers compared lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) young adults who were rejected with those who were supported by their families. Rejected LGB youth were 8.4 times more likely to have tried to commit suicide, 5.9 times more likely to report high levels of depression, 3.4 times more likely to use illegal drugs, and 3.4 times more likely to have risky sex. More recently, with the game-changing breakthroughs in the biomedical arena, attention has shifted to these biomedical prevention strategies, which include preexposure prophylaxis (Pr EP) for gay, bisexual, and other MSM (Grant et al., 2010) and vaginal microbicides for women (Abdool et al., 2010). In a forthcoming report, also requested by ONAP, the committee will address the broad question of how to obtain national estimates that characterize the health care of people living with HIV in the United States.

In this biomedical approach, the early detection and treatment of HIV have been recommended policy for the last several years (CDC, 2006; Workowski & Berman, 2006) as a way to decrease community viral load. The second report will include discussion of challenges and best practices from previous large-scale and nationally representative studies of PLWHA as well as other populations.

Since discrimination based on sexual identity is critical to the ideas being put forth, and since the HIV prevention needs of gay and bisexual men differ widely from those of non-gay or bisexual MSM (Halkitis, 2010b), the focus of this issue of the newsletter is on gay and bisexual men, and not MSM in general.

This topic will be considered from the theoretical perspective of minority stress theory, with attention to (a) how clinicians can effectively address these social burdens with their clients, (b) the work of AIDS service organizations, and (c) policy in light of the the summer before my freshman year at Columbia University.

However, despite the fact that the disease no longer remains confined solely to gay and bisexual men, the reality is that this segment of the population is the one most affected by this epidemic. African American families in diversity: Gay men and lesbians as participants in family networks.

In the seminal 1998 article, Walter Batchelor warned that “AIDS still attacks homosexual and bisexual men in great numbers” (p. It is truly alarming that 30 years later, HIV/AIDS continues to be predominantly a gay and bisexual disease in this country (Halkitis, 2010b).

The experiences of homophobia may exert their effects on sexual risk taking indirectly by exacerbating mental health burden (Halkitis, 2010b; Johnson, Carrico, Chesney, & Morin, 2008).